Table of Contents


* Kevin Carey, "The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap," Thinking K-16 8, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 27.

J.R. Lockwood and Daniel F. McCaffrey, "Controlling for Individual Heterogeneity in Longitudinal Models, with Applications to Student Achievement," Electronic Journal of Statistics 1 (2007): 244

Kilchan Choi, Pete Goldschmidt, and Kyo Yamashiro, Exploring Models of School Performance: From Theory to Practice (CSE Report 673) (Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing [CRESST], 2006), 24.

§ S. Paul Wright, "Advantages of a Multivariate Longitudinal Approach to Educational Value-Added Assessment Without Imputation," Paper presented at National Evaluation Institute, 2004. Available online at

|| Measures of Effective Teaching Project. "Ensuring Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching," (Seattle, WA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2013), 13.